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UPSC Geography Question paper last 32 years

Geography Optional

QUESTION PAPER ANALYSIS (INDIAN PHYSICAL & ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY)

UPSC PREVIOUS YEARS – 1991 – 2023

Nothing succeeds like success, but it asks for changes, encountering uncharted, unknown which is always a challenge. To succeed in life and achieve results you must understand and master three mighty forces of DESIRE, BELIEF AND EXPECTATIONS. A within powerful influential and sufficiently independent person can only become successful. This is also the only path to individual satisfaction in life. The loftiest problem faced by us today is lack of vision, lack of direction. Problems are part of life and trouble the essence of success. In his own time, in his own place, in what he really is and in the stage he has reached good or bad, every human being is specific element within the whole of the manifest divine being. So instead of being afraid of difficulties, try to understand the relevance of your suffering. Adversity always presents opportunities for introspection.

“When the freedom they wished for most was freedom from responsibility,

Athens ceased to be free and was never free again”

(Historical Edith Hamilton on ancient Greece)

The requirement of personal freedom incorporates the prerequi- site of firstly building own educational skills, knowledge is a tangible asset and most important tool for the work to be done. More updated knowledge you possess more free you become. Secondly developing passion for personal responsibility for the task. Be active! Take responsibilities! Work for the things you believe in. If you do not, you are surrendering your fate to others.

 About the Institution – DIRECTION

Every intelligent and sensible young person, being ambitious aspire to be an IAS, but just to aspire without firm determination, required devotion, dedication and DIRECTION, means to make castle in the air, as it involves tough competition from among the aspirants. Hence the requirements are firm determination, wholehearted devotion, and dedication and of course, right DIRECTION. Astray study with devotion, on systematic and right lines leads to success. Study on right lines and in right DIRECTION means to have clear vision of the present day patterns, trends and requirements of the exam.

The Institution – DIRECTION has been playing the role of facilitator, promoter, supporter of the aspirants successfully, in order to make them achieve their dreams and ultimately to contribute to the development of the country.

The institution is providing classes daily to give continuity to the preparation process of the aspirants. It provides intensive training program based on analytical approach. This is the only institution providing individual attention to each student’s queries & problems, so as to help them out to reach the sky as far as possible Intensive practice for map studies and diagrams are given exclusively in this institution as these have proven to be the form of test on the UPSC format on weekly basis so as the aspirants acquaint themselves with the writing approach and over come their weaknesses to The individual personality development programme also goes hand in hand exclusively in this institution. So as the aspirants gains confidence in not only writing but also expressing him verbally which definitely helps him in facing the interviews? Last but not the least the faculty of this institution are more than eager to help out the aspirants at any juncture as they are very readily approachable.

The importance and significance of this institution also lies in the fact that it exclusively deals with the subject Geography that is fast gaining importance as an optional. Being semi- scientific in nature, it is well adaptable by the students of other streams especially science.

In the end I want to extent my best wishes to all the sincere aspirants for the success in the examination.

SYLLABUS :-

Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalization; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.

Industry: Evolution of industries; Location factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro – based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalization; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.

Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space program.

Note : Candidates will be required to answer one Compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

1991 : Explain the origin and consequences of earthquakes in the Himalayas with special reference to the Uttarkashi earthquake.

1991 : Elucidate the character of the Himalayan Rivers and examine their role in the Indian plains.

1992 : Explain the characteristics and productivity of the ‘Regular’ back soils of India.

1992 : Major issues involved in the Sino-Indian boundary conflict. (Short notes).

1992 : Discuss the major characteristics of the Indian monsoon with special emphasis on the causative factors.

1993 : “India presents an example of unity in diversity”.

1993 : Elucidate this statement in the context of India’s physical and human aspects.

1993 : Delineate the flood-prone areas of India by drawing a sketch map in the answer book and discuss the causes and consequences of floods in the North Indian plains.

1994 : Explain the drainage characteristics of Peninsular India. (Short notes).

1994 : Discuss the recent theories put forward to explain the origin and mechanism of the Indian    Monsoon.

1995 : Explain the factors responsible for uneven distribution of rainfall in India (Short notes).

1995 : Draw a sketch-map in your answer-book to delineate the main physiographic regions of  India and provide a reasoned account of the relief and structure of the Himalayan region.

1996 : Examine the origin and characteristics of the antecedent drainage system of the Himalayas.

1996 :  Draw a sketch-map in your answer-book to delineate the main climatic regions of Indiaand discuss the important climatic characteristics of each region.

1997 : Discuss the origin and main geomorphic feature of Thar Desert of India.

1998:   No question.

1999  : Explain the rise of the Himalayan ranges.

1999  : Elucidate the mechanism of the Indian Monsoon.

2000 : Describe the structure and relief feature of peninsular India.

 2001 : Discuss the relief features of Indian Northern Plains.

2002 : Explain the Origin, Mechanism and characteristics of Summer Monsoon in India.

2003 : Highlight the salient differences between the Himalayan and the Peninsular drainage Systems.

2004 : Discuss the role of spatial pattern of rainfall and temperature in the delimitation of climatic regions of India, especially with reference to Stamp’s climatic regionalization.

2005 :  No question

2006 :  Give a Critical account of the recent theories of origin of Indian monsoon with special reference of Jet Stream Theory.

2007 : Explain the different views put forth about the origin of Himalayas and divide Himalayas    into vertical division.

2008 : Distinguish between the Himalayan and the peninsular drainage systems.

2009 : Distinguish between the West and East coast of India in terms of their evolution , present topography and drainage pattern.

2010 : Explain Himalayan orogeny and illustrate how the process has affected the geomophic characteristics of macro division of Himalayas.

2011 :  Present a comparative analysis of the regimes of Himalayan and Peninsular rivers of  India and examine their implications in the irrigation system of the country.

2011 : Identify the major biosphere reserves of India and discuss their role in the conservation of forest and wildlife.

2012 : Explain the structure characteristics of the Deccan Plateau.

2012 :  Discuss the role of spatial pattern of rainfall and temperature in the delimitation of climatic regions of India, specially with reference to stamp’s climatic regionalization

2013 :  Explain the topographical and structural characteristics of the Siwalik Range.

2013 :  Discuss the mechanism of Indian Monsoon.

2013 :  Identify the earthquake-prone zones and suggest strategy for their management.

2014 :  How is drainage pattern determined by the water divide?

 2014 : Why has agro and social forestry failed to achieve its objectives?

2014 :  Bring out the distribution of Laterite soils in India and their specific use for agriculture.

2014 : Describe the salient climatological characteristics of  Rayalaseema region.

2014 : Differentiate between the ‘intensity’ and ‘magnitude’ of an earthquake and explain its varying impact in different parts of India.

2015 :  Explain the pattern of winter rainfall in India.

 2015 : How does natural vegetation affect the formation of in situ soils.

2016 :  Explain the shifting of river courses and river capturing in the Himalayas.

2016 :  Discuss the role of spatial pattern of rainfall and temperature in the delimitation of    climatic regions of India especially with reference to Stamp’s climatic regionalization.

2016 :  Describe the distribution of black soils in India and their specific use for agriculture.

2017 :  Give a reasoned account of unusual pattern of distribution of monsoonal rainfall in India in 2017.

2017 :  Justify the inclusion of Meghalaya in Peninsular India and discuss its vegetation and soil types.

2017 :  Drainage pattern in Peninsular India is a result of its geological structure and topography. Elaborate.

2018 :  Explain the unusual intensity of dust storms and thunderstorms across India in the pre- monsoon period of year 2018.

2018 :  Distinguish the geographical aspects of North-Western lava plateau and Chotanagpur plateau of peninsular India.

2019 : Why is the Indian Monsoon erratic in nature ? Explain.

2019 :  Discuss the rainfall pattern and correlate it with spatial distribution of natural vegetation in India.

2019 : Present the salient features of West flowing rivers of India.

2020: Climate change has unsettled the rhythm of seasons. Comment with examples and empirical evidences.

2020:   Soil types in India, classified on the basis of color, possess specific chemical and mineral characteristics. Discuss.

2021:   Discuss the economic significance of the volcanic soils of India.

2021:   Describe the salient features of the east-flowing rivers of India.

2021:   Describe the problems of cloud burst in India giving suitable examples.

2021:  Explain the impact of tropical cyclones and western disturbances on the climate of India.

2021:  Describe the structure and relief features of the Deccan Plateau.

2022 : How do physiography and climate of India explain the biological diversity of the country?

2022: The process of desertification leads to soil desiccation and soil loss. Explain.

2022 : Critically examine the factors affecting the unpredictability of South West Monsoon system in India.

2022 :  Soils of India , are clear reflections of the structure and process. Comment.

2023 : Describe the origin, distribution and economic significance of Gondwana system of rock     in India.

Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

1991 : No question.

1992 : Explain the distribution of major mineral resources of the Deccan plateau together with   the extent of their exploitation.

1993 : Explain the geographical factors responsible for the growth of mangrove vegetation in India and discuss its role in coastal ecology.

1993 : Critically examine the marine resources of India and discuss the problems encountered in    their development.

1994 : Examine the forest resources of India and explain the principles of conservation which could be applied to improve the forest wealth of India.

1995 : Examine the origin and characteristics of the soils of the North Indian Plain.

1995 : Examine the fossil fuel resources of India with particular reference to the present and future demands for energy.

1996 : Discuss the distribution and characteristics of the evergreen forest in India.

1996 : Critically examine the metalliferous mineral resources of India with particular reference to their present and future demand.

1997 : No question.

1998 : Examine the resources of Andaman and Nicobar Island.

1998 : Bring out the present day position of exploitation and processing of nuclear minerals in  India.

 1998 : Examine the pattern of distribution and mode of exploitation of bauxite in India.

1999 : Examine the need for conservation of biotic resources in India..

2000 : No question.

2001 : Explain the sequence of vegetation zones of the Himalayas.

 2002 : No question. 2003 : No question.

2004 : Identify the important biotic-resource of India.

2004 : Highlight, in brief the problems and remedial measures of biotic resource conservation in  India.

2005 : “ Non convention energy is the energy of the future in India.” Justify this statement.

2006 :  No Question

2007 : Discuss the need of conservation and utility of water resource in India.

2008 :  No Question

2009 : Discuss the formation and their distribution of the major soil types of India.

2010 : Discuss the spatial distribution of nature vegetation in India with help of sketch map.

 2010 : Discuss the emerging pattern of surface water utilization in India.

2011 :  Give an account of potentiality and prospects of development of marine resources of India.

2012 :  Delineate the mineral belts of India and mention their distinctive features.

2013 :  Delineate the coalfields of India and mention their distinctive features.

2014 :  Location of thermal power plants and coal fields in India are not mutually conducive. Analyze.

2014 :  Suggest the measures of wild-life conservation with reference to extinction of rare    species.

2015 :  Account for the geographical distribution of groundwater resources of India. How serious   is its depletion in recent decades.

2016 :  Give an account of the development of renewable resources of India.

2016 :  Evaluate the impact of technology on resource utilization in India.

2017 :  No Question

2018 :  Why setting up of Water Management Boards is a controversial issue in India?

2018 :  Keeping the recent developments in view, how can the energy crisis of India be circumvented by harnessing non-conventional energy resources?

2018 :  Make a critical appraisal of the factors affecting river water quality in India.

2018 :  Illustrate with suitable examples the endeavors undertaken in augmenting conservation of  water and vegetation in India.

2019 :  Examine the major causes of ground water depletion in India.

2019 : Discuss the problems of wildlife conservation and management in India.

2021 : Discuss the importance of solar energy in the future economic development of India.

2021 : Discuss the reserves, distribution, and production of all varieties of coal in India.

2021 : Discuss the salient features of Project Tiger in India.

2021 : Examine the critical issues of groundwater resources in India.

2022 : The peninsular location of India provides scope for harnessing non conventional energy  resources. Discuss with examples.

2022 :  Ground water contamination in fast expanding urban landscape of India appears to have  become a major public health issue. Discuss.

2022 :  India is bestowed with rich mineral resources due to its geological structure. Correlate the    above statement with large mineral belts of India.

2023:  Discuss the impact of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 on forest conservation in India.

2023 : Explain the geological characteristics and ecological significance of the Eastern Ghats.

2023 : Why are critical minerals essential for the economic development and national security in India ?

Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalization; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.

1991 : What is meant by ‘Operation Flood’? Discuss the manner of its implementation and its  success in India.

1991 : Discuss the role of animal husbandry in the agricultural economy of India with special  reference to any one region.

1992 : Explain the distribution and characteristics of dry zone agriculture.

1992 : What is meant by Green Revolution? Explain its successes and failures.

1992 : Discuss the role of social forestry in any one region of India.

1993 : Explain the role of institutional factors in the development of agriculture in India.

 1994 : Differentiate between agricultural efficiency and agricultural productivity and discuss the methods used in the determination of agricultural efficiency in India.

1995 : Discuss the role of infrastructural, scientific and technological developments in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture.

1996 : Discuss the importance of irrigation in Indian Agriculture and describe the methods of  irrigation practiced in either the Ganga Valley or the Karnataka-Maharashtra region.

1997 : Examine the significance of social forestry in the rural economy of India.

1997 : Discuss the impact of green revolution on the agricultural production in India.

1997 : Divide Peninsular India into agricultural regions. Explain the basis of such a  regionalisation.

1998 : Discuss the role of institutional factors in the efficiency and productivity of agriculture in  India.

1998 : Discuss the cropping patters in different agricultural regions of India.

1999 : Write an essay on the role of animal husbandry and household industries in the development of rural economy in India.

2000 : Critically examine the role of infrastructural and institutional factors in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture.

2001 : Examine the geographical basis of agro-climatic planning regions of India.

2002 : Critically evaluate the dual impacts of green revolution in India.

2003 : Give an account of the success and prospects of Blue Revolution with comments on its  impacts on rural economy of India.

2004 : No Question

2005 :  Present an account of the success and constraints of White Revolution in India

2006 :  Discuss the problems and prospects of dry zone agriculture in India and highlight     strategies schemes for its development.

2007 : “The institutional factors have grip over the crop pattern and crop productivity on Indian agriculture.” Justify.

2008 : Discuss the bases of identifying agro-climatic zones and explain the core strayegies for agricultural development

2009 : No Question

2010 : Assess as to how surface water utilization affects food production and food security in the country.

2011:   Discuss the potentiality and status of aquaculture in the Ganga Plain.

2012 :  Divide India into agriculture regions and critically examine the role of ecological and human factors responsible for transformation of agriculture economy in any one region.

2013 :  Explain the method of delineating crop-association regions with reference to India.

2013 :  Discuss the potentiality and present status of horticulture in the Western and Central Himalaya.

2013 :  Discuss the role of institutional factors in shaping the pattern of Indian agriculture.

2013 :  Define agricultural productivity. Mention the methods of its measurement and bring out the disparities in its regional distribution.

2013 :  Snags in the Food Security Policy of India.

2014 : ‘In spite of various negative impacts of Green Revolution, there is a demand for New  Green Revolution’. Elaborate.

2015 :  Explain how modernization of Indian agriculture is affected by unfavourable institutional  factors with suitable examples.

2015 :  With the help of a map, indicate the principal areas of dryland farming in the country and account for farmers’ suicides mainly in those areas.

2015 :  Discuss the scope of replication of ‘White Revolution’ in India.

2016 :  Define agricultural intensity and bring out its regional distribution in India.

2016 :  “India has paid heavily for achievement of Green Revolution in the form of economic, social and ecological cost.” Discuss.

2017 :  Farmers’ suicide is one of the major agrarian problems in India. Bring out its causes and suggest the remedial measures with special preference to Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab.

2017 :  Land reform is a key to modern agriculture in India.

2017 : Describe various measures taken in this direction after Independence.

2018 :  Examine the ongoing process of agricultural diversification and its implications for food security in India.

2019 :  Explain the significance of dry farming in drought prone areas of India.

2019 :  Correlate the agro-climatic zones with agro-ecological regions of India

2019 : Discuss the use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides and insecticides in agriculture and its impacts on human health.

2020 :  Discuss the method of crops residue management in rural India to reduce pollution.

2020 :  Identify oilseeds producing areas in India and the discuss  the measure to promote edible oil industry.

2020 :  The Essential Commodities (Amendment)Bill 2020 aims to deregulate the production, supply and distribution of farm produce. Critically examine its spatial consequences.

2020 :  Elucidate the benefits of neem coated urea scheme for Indian agriculture.

2020 : Canal irrigation has led to mono cropping in India. Explain with suitable examples.

2020 :  The pattern of growing ecological foot-prints is uneven in nature. Analyze with reference to land resources in India.

2021 :  No Question

2022 : Discuss the recent changes brought about in institutional frameworks of agriculture in India. Evaluate its impact on agrarian economy of the country.

2022 : Discuss importance of “Dry Land ” farming in drought prone regions of India.

2022 : How do agro climatic and land capability indicators assist in macro agriculture regionalization of India? Illustrate with an appropriate map.

2023 : Why are millets considered as “nutri-cereals’ and climate-resilient : Discuss the constraints and opportunities of millet cultivation in India.

2023 :  Discuss the significance of organic farming for sustainable agriculture development in India

2023 : Indian’s poultry sector has become one of the faster growing areas of the country’s agriculture sector. Examine its opportunities and challenges.

2023 :  Why India lags behind many other countries in agriculture productivity ? Suggest  suitable measures to raise productivity across the regions in a sustainable manner.

Industry: Evolution of industries; Location factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro – based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalization; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.

1991 : Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Industrial Centralization with specific  examples.

1992 : Types of rural industries and their basis in Rajasthan, Gujarat region.

1993 : Growth of agro-based industries in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

1993 : Identify the important periods of industrialization in India and analyses the character of  the two most developed industrial regions.

1994 : Identification of industrially backward areas and problems in their development.

1994 : Draw a sketch-map to delineate the major industrial complexes of India and discuss their  important characteristics.

1995 : Recent changes in India’s basic industrial policy.

1995 : Examine critically the factors for the localization of iron and steel industry in India with special reference to the newer centres of steel production.

1996 : Analyses the factors for the localization of either the cotton textile or the sugar industry in     India and note the recent trends in the industry.

1997 : Analyse the locational pattern of cement industry in India.

1997 : Critically examine the locational pattern and trend of production of forest based industries in India.

1998 : Examine the importance of industrial estates in Indi 1998 : Bring out the trends in the development of fertilizer industry in India.

1999 : Discuss the factors for the localisation of either the cement or the cotton textile industry in  India and analyse the pattern of its distribution.

2000 : Discuss the growth, location and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.

2001 : Describe the growth ,characteristic and distribution pattern of India’s industrial regions.

2002 : No question. 2003 : No question. 2004 : No Question 2005 : No Question

2006 :  Trace the evolution of industries in India and evaluate the role of multinational and liberalisation policies in this context.

2007 : Bring out the impact of multinational and liberalisation on the Industrial Economy/Pattern of India.

2008 : Explain the factors promoting the rapid growth and development of the automobile   industry in India giving suitable examples.

2009 : Examine the role of raw materials in the location of the Iron and Steel Industry in India. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples.

2010 : No Question

2011 :  Assess the scope and development of Pharmaceutical Industry in India.

2012 :  Describe the development of textile industries in India.

2012 : Identify the spatial pattern of agro-industrial regions of India. Analyze the potentiality of  Malwa as an important agro-industrial region of the future.

2013 : Identify the main industrial clusters of India and account for their development.

2013 :  Explain the role of multinational in globalization of industries in India.

2013 :  Discuss the problems in realization of benefits of globalization and liberalization in industrial sector of India.

2014 : Describe the problems of agro-based industries in India in general and cotton textiles in particular.

2014 : What are the desired possible changes in our trade policy to promote the development of cottage industry?

 2015 : Why does the pharmaceutical industry concentrate largely in the western region of the country?

2015 :  Why is the traditional crafts industry in India on the decline?

2016 :  “The Bokaro Iron and Steel Plant is an example of Industrial Complex.” Explain.

2016 :  Analyze the location, distributional pattern and problems of cotton textile industries in India. (In about

2016 :  Explain the New Industrial Policies in India.

2017 :  Mini steel plants can act as an instrument of decentralization of iron and steel industry in India. Explain.

2018 :  Startups may play important role in giving fillip to economic growth in India. Illustrate with examples.

2019 :  Critically analyse the role of multinational corporations in India’s economic development with suitable examples.

2019 :  Examine ongoing space programmes of India and their implications for national security in future.

2019 :  Explain the relevance of green tourism for sustainable development of mountain      environment in India.

2020 :  The Pharmaceutical industry in India depend on the import of raw material. Evaluate thisstatement in view of the Indo-Chinese relationship.

2020 :  What kind of skill promotion program have been initiated for job deficient regions in           India ? Explain

2021 : Give a reasoned account of the difference between the sugar industry of North and   Peninsular India.

2021 : Examine the significance of ecotourism in relation to socio-economic development and biodiversity conservation in India.

2021 : Identify the major industrial corridors of India and discuss the characteristics of the   Bengaluru-Mumbai Corridor.

2021 : Assess the growth of multinational corporations in the liberalized economic environment of India.

2022 : Discuss the salient characteristics of industrial complexes of Western India. Examine the impact of SEZ policy on the region.

2023 : Indian pharma Industry has to move from volume to value leadership to capture global market. Discuss.

2023  : Identify the jute producing areas and discuss the major causes of decline of Jute mill industry in India

 

Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space program.

1991 : Analyze the role of different types of transport in the commodity flows of the Delta   regions of East India.

1991 : Give an account of the major groups of agro based industries of India. Critically examine    their contribution to regional economy and rural employment.

1992 : Discuss the basis on which the current network of Airways is built in India, highlighting its role in the overall transportation milieu.

1993 : Discuss briefly the overall pattern of inter-regional trade in India.

1994 : Competitive and complementary character of the Indian rail-route and road network.

1995 : Role of rural market centres in promoting intra and inter-regional trade.

1996 : Geographical impediments in the development of inland waterways in India..

1997 : Discuss the nature of commodity flows in India.

1998 : Evaluate the feasibility of the   proposed Ganga- Cauveri Drainage link.

1998 : Explain the role of railways as a unifying factor in Indian economy.

1999 : Critically examine the complementary and competitive character of the Indian rail-routes and the road network.

 2000 : No question. 2001 : No question.

2002 : Discuss the oil and natural gas pipeline networks in India. Highlight their complementary role in regional development.

2003 : Discuss the growing importance of ports in foreign trade of India.

2004 : Give a comparative account of the development of River Water Transport in Pre-colonial    and Post- independence in regional development

2005 : What is the Golden Quadrilateral ? Discuss the progress made in its execution and  impacts on India economy

2006 : No Question 2007 : No Question 2008 : No Question 2008 : No Question 2009 : No Question 2010 : No Question

2011 :  Assess the growing importance of air transport in India and examine its role in the    regional development of the country.

2012 :  Examine the role of road transport in regional development taking suitable examples from an area you have studies in detail.

2013 : No question.

2014 : Discuss the problems and prospects of National Waterway No. 1

2015 :  Evaluate the contribution of Communication and Information Technology to the development of economy and society, and examine the relevance of the recently launched        ‘Digital India’ program.

2016 :  Bring out the development of river water transport in India and its role in regional development.

2016 :  Evaluate the impact of technology on resource utilization in India.

2017 :  Critically examine the feasibility of development of a comprehensive network of airways in India.

2017 :  Bring out the significance of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

2018 :  Assess the suitability of Special Economic Zone (SEZs) for the sustainable economic development in India.

2018 :  Account for the persisting negative trade balance of India.

2018 :  Give a critical account of region specific constraints of sustainable tourism in India.

2018 :  Explain the pipeline network across India and its impact on regional development.

2018 :  Discuss the changing composition of international trade through major seaports of India.

2019 : Examine the development of information technology in India and its influences on work culture and society.

2019 : With special reference to India examine the changes in the nature and patterns of  international trade. Mention the major influencing factors.

2020 : India has opened-up its space to private sector for satellite based activities. Critically  examine its implications indicating the major security concerns.

2020 :  Digital Divide in India needs quick redressal to reduce regional disparity in development. Elaborate with suitable examples.

2020 :  What are the characteristics of Blue Flag certified beaches? Discuss their significance for beach tourism in India.

2021:  Examine how information and communication technology has boosted the development of certain regions of India.

2021:   Critically assess the status of the balance of trade in India and suggest some measures to  combat the issues.

2022 : Discuss the significance of new ports on the Western Coast of India on external trade of the country.

2022 : Critically examine the role of IRNSS-NavIC program on satellite navigation system of  India.

2023 : Examine the role of Indian Earth observation satellite Technology in enhancing weather forecasting and disaster managements.

2023 : Highlight the salient feature of India’s trade policy. Discuss the status of India’s balance of trade with China.

INDIAN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SYLLABUS)

Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban development’s; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development program; Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi- level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and interstate issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalization and Indian economy.

Note : Candidates will be required to answer one Compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

1991 : Identify the major tribal communities in India by regions and examine the problems common to all of them and the ways of their solution.

1992 : Examine critically the major factors responsible for the growth of two highest population density zones in India.

1992 : Salient features of Tribal area planning.

1993 :  Elucidate the current population policy of India and comment on its effectiveness.

1993 :  Analyse the changes in the literacy rate during the post- independence period in India.

1994 :  Elucidate the population density types in India.

1995 : Discuss the problems of tribal areas in India.

1995 : Elucidate the measures taken to limit the growth of population in India.

1996 : Name the million cities of India according to 1991 census and critically examine the  factors for unprecedented growth in their population in the last 40 years.

1996 :  Explain the salient features of the tribal development programme with particular reference to either Dandakaranya or Chotanagpur.

1997 : Examine the genesis of racial diversity in India.

1997 : Critically examine the factors affecting the distributional pattern of population in India.

1998 : Critically examine the problems and prospects of tribal areas in India.

1998 : Discuss the role of languages in regional consciousness and national integration in India.

2000 : Analyse the distribution of population in India in the perspective of nature resources and identify the over- population and under-population region in the country.

2001 : Elucidate the sex and age structure of the population of India.

2002:   In what way the language, religion and tradition can form the basis of  cultural regionalization of India ?

2003 : No question. 2004 : No question. 2005 : No question. 2006 : No Question 2007 : No Question 2008 :No Question 2009 : No Question 2010 : No Question 2011 : No Question

2012 :  Factors affecting innovation diffusion.

2012 :  Linguistic diversity in North-eastern states.

2012 :  Geographical reasons for the variation in literacy from state to state in India.

2012 :  Evaluate the population policy of India and examine its relevance to the nation’s population control.

2012 :  How age structure affects dependency ratio? Explain with suitable examples.

2013 :  What do you understand by ‘Young India’? How can the present state of population  composition be converted into an asset for the country?

2013 :  Describe the impact of linguistic diversity on the development of various regions of  India.

2014 :  Highlight the implications of declining child sex ratio in India.

2014 :  Discuss the trends in emigration focusing on its major thrust.

2015 : “Age-sex pyramid is representative of the history of a region.” Explain.

2015 : Discuss the social and spatial ramifications of increasing longevity.

2015 :  In population planning, the thrust of the Government has been ‘planning the population’  not ‘plan for the population’. Elaborate.

2016 :  Point out the ethnic disparities in the N.E. India.

2016 :  Discuss the factors influencing the distribution of sex ratio in India.

2017 :  “Linguistic diversity is an asset as well as a challenge in India”. Explain the statement  focusing on the distribution of languages and the major steps taken to address the related  issues.

2018 :  Critically assess the vanishing ethnic linguistic plurality of India.

2018 :  Discuss the socio-economic problems associated with the left behind families of  international migrants from India.

2019 :  No Question

2020 :  Identifying areas covered under tribal sub-plan, discuss the programmers initiated to  address to their problems.

2020 :  The process of demographic transition is not uniform in India. Examine this statement in  the context of demographic transition theory.

2020 : Analyze the changing nature of workforce composition vis-à-vis rural-urban divide in  India.

2021:   Critically examine the relevance of Ravenstein’s law of population migration with reference to India.

2022:   How would decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) below the replacement level, in many states of India affect the future population structure of the country?

2023 : With failing fertility rate and rising median age, how can India translate demographic  dividend to economic dividend?

2023 :  Explain the Cultural regions of India based on their cultural attributes.

2023 : Describe the regional variations of health indicators among  the India States.

Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

1991 : Analyze the extent of urban population growth in India in the last four decades.

1991 : Explain the basis and characteristics of Dispersed Settlements in the N.E. Region of India.

1991 : Explain the hierarchical pattern of Indian cities and discuss their growth and distribution.

1992 :  Major characteristics of the rural urban fringe.

1993 : Salient features of Tribal area   planning.

1993 : Elucidate the current population policy of India and comment on its effectiveness.

1993 : Analyze the changes in the literacy rate during the post- independence period inIndia.

1994 : Elucidate the population density types in India.

1995 : Discuss the problems of tribal areas in India.

1995 : Elucidate the measures taken to limit the growth of population in India.

1996 : Name the million cities of India according to 1991 census and critically examine the factors for unprecedented growth in their population in the last 40 years.

1996 : Explain the salient features of the tribal development program with particular reference to either Dandakaranya or Chotanagpur.

1997 : Examine the genesis of racial diversity in India.

1997 : Critically examine the factors affecting the distributional pattern of population in India.

1998 : Critically examine the problems and prospects of tribal areas in India.

1998 :  Discuss the role of languages in regional consciousness and national integration in India.

1999 : No question.

2000 :  Describe the salient characteristics of the morphology of Indian cities.

2001 : No question. 2002 : No question. 2003 : No question.

2004 : ‘Economic characteristics of an area exert a much more direct effect upon its population patterns than do the physical characteristics’. Explain with examples.

2005 :  No question.

2006 :  Explain the processes and patterns of regional disparities in India and suggest measures  for bringing about the regional balances.

2006 :  Explain the morphology of Indian cities in the background of existing morphological  models.

2007 : “Slums are urban menace” Elucidate with Indian cities as examples.

2008 : ‘Unplanned urban development has created numerous problems.’ Comment.

2009 : “ There is no sharp divide where an urban settlement stop and rural area begins.” Analyze

            the statement with reference to the sprawl of Indian cities.

2009 : How do the ‘Push’ and ‘Pull’ factors operate for the emergence of slums in the  metropolises of India ?

2010 :  Out line the role of class I and II towns in urban process of India and indicate their contribution towards balanced urban development.

2011 :  Discuss the problem of environmental degradation generated by urban wastes in India.

2012 :  Morphological characteristics of villages situated in hilly region.

2012 :  Give an account of geographical conditions responsible for the development of different  types of rural settlements in India.

2013 :  City-regions as territorial unit for regional planning and development

2013 : Define slums and explain their problems.

2013 : Discuss the objectives of ‘Vision 2020’ in creation of viable village complex in India for  ‘Inclusive Rural Development’ program.

2013 :  Describe how urbanization creates air and water pollution in India.

2014 :  Analyze the feasibility of ‘Smart Towns’ Development in India.

2014 :  Account for the multiple problems of urban agglomerations.

2014 :  How has an inappropriate urban land use policy accounted for undesirable development  in and around metropolitan cities?

2015 : “Mono-functional towns are economically vulnerable.” Discuss.

 2015 : Reduction in regional disparities has been one of the priority goals of national planning in India. How the proposed new Smart urban centers may contribute to the process?

2016 :  How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement.

2016 :  Present a comparative analysis of geographical factors responsible for distribution of  human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North-Eastern regions of India.

2016 :  Describe the causes and effects of urbanization in India and explain its impact on rural landscape and urban ecology.

2017 :  Small towns in India have problems and prospects of their own. Elaborate.

2017 : Mention various methods of functional classification of towns in India and explain the method applied by Asok Mitra.

2018 :  Explain the contemporary agricultural scenario in the context of rapid urbanization in India.

2018 :  Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of million-plus cities of India with suitable examples.

2018 : Peri-urbanization has created enormous environmental problem. Discuss their causes and consequences with reference to the National Capital Region (NCR) of India.

 2018 : Describe the changing regional morphology of rural settlements in India.

2019 :  Provide a reasoned account on emerging conurbations in India and explain with suitable  examples the problems associated with it.

2020 : Give a reasoned geographical account of changing rural folk houses in india.

2020 : Identify challenges faced by generative and parasitic towns in India and their possible remedies.

2020 :  Urban sprawl around planned cities evolve leading to emergence of squatter settlements.  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such outgrowth.

2021: Discuss Ashok Mitra’s classification method of Indian cities.

2021:  Critically examine the importance of the Smart Cities Programme for solving the urban problems in India.

2022:   Examine the role of high population concentration in Indian slums in making them more vulnerable during pandemic conditions like the COVID-19.

2022:   What are the drivers of urban sprawl around the major cities of the country? How have  new investments in transport projects supported sprawl development?

2023 : Examine the environmental challenges caused by the solid waste in metropolitan region of India and discuss the efforts to overcome it.

2023 : Poor quality of urban planning in India is a huge constraint in realizing the true economic potentials of urbanization. Critically examine.

2023 :  Urban build environment in big cities of India Creates key changes in biophysical    character of the Landscape. Discuss.

2023  : A large number of India cities have a complex morphological characteristics due to their historical evolution. Elucidate.

Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development program; Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi- level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

1991 : Discuss the changes brought about in Indian agriculture by the successive Five-Year Plans, mentioning their successes and failures.

1992 : Examine critically the advantages and disadvantages of multi-level planning with special reference to India.

1993 : Discuss briefly the overall pattern of inter-regional trade in India.

1994 : Discuss the growth of regional planning in India and account for regional disparities in development.

1995 : Give the hierarchy of planning regions and bring out the role of metropolitan planning in fostering regional development in India.

1996 : Explain the criteria used in the identification of drought- prone areas in India.

1996  : Magnitude of regional imbalances in economic development in India.

1997  : Evaluate the benefits of Block Level development planning in India.

 1997 : Draw a sketch map of India showing major river basins. Examine the feasibility of the concept of river basins as a planning unit.

1998 : No question.

1999 : Nature and utility of multi-level planning in India.

1999 : Analyze the causes of regional disparities in the economic development of India and suggest measures for their removal.

2000 : No question.

2001 : Provide the geographical background and characteristics of the distribution of Hill Stations of India.

2001 : Explain the concept of watershed and its utility in land management.

2002 : Give a reasoned account of regional disparities in economic development in India and bring out the contribution of decentralized planning in solving this problem

2003 : Discuss the programs and policy development of dry areas in India.

2003 : Present an account of the experience of regional planning in India in the context of  Damodar Valley.

2004 : Examine the regional development policy of India in various Five Year Plans.

2005 : Give an account of the distribution of flood-prone areas of controlling the impact of floods in the country.

2005 :  Examine the relationship between geography and regional planning

2005 : Discuss the experiences of regional planning in India in the context of the National Capital.

2006 :  Present an account of tribals, tribal areas and their problems in India.

2007 :  No Question.

2008 :  Discuss the problems and prospects of development of catchment and command areas.

2009 :  No Question.

2010 : What is regionalism and Discuss how regionalism affects the development process with suitable examples.

2011 :  Discuss the spatial pattern of intra-regional migration in India and examine its implications in regional development.

2011 :  Identify the ravine-affected areas in India and discuss the environmental and economic impact of their reclamation.

2012 :  Elucidate the role of Tribal Development Blocks in the development of Tribal areas.

2013 : Planning and development of ‘Tribal Regions’ in India.

2013 :  Enumerate the basic indicators of development and explain their application in identification of the spatial diversity in development in India.

2014 :  Comment on the criteria of identifying Drought Prone Areas in India.

2014 :  Evaluate the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program.

2014 :  How can a meaningful skill development program contribute to the economic growth of hill areas?

2014 :  Discuss the concept of Command Area Development and evaluate its success with reference to Indira Gandhi Canal.

2015 :  Discuss the relationship of watershed approach to village level planning.

2015 :  Decentralized planning through the strengthening of the Panchayat systems is the focus  of planning in India in recent times. Suggest a blueprint for an integrated regional  development plan.

2015 : Is planning for a cluster of villages a viable option, when planning for backward areas of  the country? Discuss with suitable examples.

2015 : Discuss the concept of multi-level planning as practised in India, and explain the  implications of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in this respect.

2016 : Describe the major tribal regions of India and their problems.

2016 : Examine the causes of regional disparities in economic development in India.

2017:   Discuss the freshwater crisis in India and prepare a blueprint for its sustainable management.

2017: “An effective three-tier Panchayat Raj System will strengthen the bottom-up approach to multilevel planning in India”. Explain.

2017:   Explain the role of ‘Hill Transport Subsidy Scheme’ in reducing regional imbalances in areas identified by the Government of India.

2017:   Goods and Services Tax (GST) has differential impact on developed and backward States  of the country. How and why?

2017:   Interlinking of rivers may serve as a major source of assured irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India. Comment on its feasibility taking into account physical, economic and ecological implication.

2018 : Examine the role of people’s participation in successful decentralized planning in India.

2019 : Discuss how watershed management has become a tool in eradication of rural poverty in India.

2019 : “Intra basins linkages of rivers are more feasible economically, socially and ecologically”.Discuss with Suitable example from India.

2019 : Analyze the role of interstate migration in regional disparity in India.

2019 :  Analyze the incentive oriented programs for removing regional imbalances in socio-economic development of India.

2020 :  The success of Panchayati Raj depends upon meaningful participation of people grass root level. Examine.

2021:  Critically examine how the Panchayati Raj system is a catalyst in decentralized planning in India

2021: Discuss the Command Area Development Programme and its impact on eliminating regional inequalities in India.

2021: Discuss the role of watershed management for soil and water conservation in hilly regions of India.

2022:   Why do disparities in development and incomes between regions persist in large countries like India? How does the recent ADP plan address the issue?

2023 :  Examine the geo strategical significance of India islands

2023 :  Discuss the problem of flood and their management with special reference to Indi    Gangetic Plain.

2023 : Critical examines the ecologic and economic impact of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area development.

2023 :  Assess the ecotourism potential of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep island and highlight the challenges associated with the sustainable development of islands territories.

Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

1991 : Discuss the political issues involved in the ‘Tin Bigha’ or Siachen dispute. (Short notes).

1992 : No question.

1993 : Examine critically the geographical basis of the Indian federation.

1994 : Problems of militancy in India’s border states. (Short notes).

1995 : Importance of India in the geopolitics of the Indian Ocean realm. (Short notes).

1996 : Geographical basis of the Indian Federation. (Short notes).

1997 : Explain the basis and consequences of the establishment and implementation of recommendations of the State Re-organisation Commission in India since 1950s.

1998 : Discuss the geopolitical importance of Indian Ocean area. (Short notes).

1999 : Regional consciousness versus national integration in India. (Short notes).

2000 : No question.

2001 : Discuss the geopolitical importance of India’s Land Boundaries.

2002 : No question. 2003 : No question. 2004 : No question. 2005 : No question 2006 : No Question 2007 : No Question

2008 : Critically examine the bases of state reorganisation in India since independence.

2009 : No Question 2010 : No Question 2011 : No Question 2012 : No Question 2013 : No Question

2014 :  Discuss the implications of India’s strategic location with reference to the Indian Ocean.

2014 :  India is involved in a number of border disputes. Explain the reasons and remedies.

2015 :  How has India’s ‘Look East’ policy taken shape in the past two decades and how it may affect India’s external trade?

2015 : Indian island territories are vulnerable to the sea level rise. Explain.

2015 : Give a reasoned account of river water disputes related to the River Krishna.

2016 : No Question

2017 : Explain the inter-State issues involved in implementation of the Satluj-Yamuna Link Canal Project.

2017 : Identify the Naxal-affected areas in India and discuss their socio-economic problems.

2017 : Bring out the geopolitical implications of Doklam dispute in the context of Indo-China relations.

2017 :  Religious minorities are largely concentrated in border States of India. Discuss its causes and consequences.

2018 :  Discuss the strategies of integrated development of island territories in India.

2018 :  Cross border terrorism has implications on border area development in India. Examine it  with suitable examples.

2018 : Is the land boundary of India with its neighbouring countries a cultural divide or divided culture? Explain with suitable examples.

2019 : Discuss the political aspects of Himalaya. Explain how it has affected the geo-strategy,geo-politics and regional consciousness of Indian federalism.

2019 : “Indian is emerging as global power in relation to Indian ocean realm.” Elaborate.

2020 :  Has the regional aspiration of the people of Jammu and Kashmir been addressed through re-organization of the state? Make an assessment.

2020 :  Border are development is an important national priority. What are the resilient steps needed for peaceful borders?

2020 :  Describe the economic, maritime and strategic interests of India in South China Sea.

2021:    Critically examine the problems of inter-State border disputes in India.

2021:    Discuss the geopolitical impact of the bilateral relationship between India and Bhutan.

2022:   Discuss the continuing disputes on water sharing between the riparian states of North-West India.

2022:   Can the Panchayat Raj institutions play a role in grassroot level planning in India? If yes,discuss how.

2022:   Kalapani dispute has opened a new front on the India-Nepal international border.Explain.

2022:   Discuss the emergence of linguistic regions and states in India.

2022:   Discuss the geopolitical significance of Quad in the Indo-Pacific realm with reference to marine trade in the region.

2023 : Critically examine the role of petroleum energy resources on International Geopoliticswith special reference to India.

2023 :  Examine the geopolitical impact of bilateral relationship between India and SriLanka.

Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalization and Indian economy.

1991 : Critically examine the relationship between deforestation the last four decades. .

1992 : No question. 1993 : No question.

1994 : Examine the nature and extent of environmental degradation in the Himalayas.

1994 : Explain the salient features of Sardar Sarovar Project and elucidate the controversy related to its implementation.

1995 : No question. 1996 : No question.

1997 : Evaluate the nature of ecological problem in India and suggest measures for measurement.

1998 : No question. 1999 : No question.

2000 : Analyse the role of India in the geo-politics of the Indian Ocean region.

2001 : Explain the geographical characteristics of the regional distribution of earthquakes in India.

2002 : Explain the causes, impacts and remedial measures of earthquake disaster.

2003 : Explain the causes of regional disparities in economic development of the India.

2004 :  Explain the causes,impacts and remedial measures of flood-hazards in Middle and Lower Ganga Plain.

2005 : No question

2006 : Explain the processes and patterns of regional disparities in India and suggest measures for bringing about the regional balances.

2007 : Discuss environmental problems of India in the context of rapid economic development  and population growth.

2008 : No question

2009 : What are the causes and consequences of environmental degradation in India’s industrial  areas ? Give specific examples.

2009 : Discuss the impacts of globalization on India’s industry and agriculture sectors.

2010 : Identify the regions affected by Chikangunya with the help of sketched map amd bring out the regional pattern of the disease.

2010 :  How does formation of national park help ecological restoration and conservation and Explain with suitable example.

2011 :  Analyze the causes of desertification in India. Represent the decertified areas of the country on a sketch map and suggest remedial measures to control it.

2012 :  Examine the origin, dimension and implications of the Sino-Indian border dispute.

2012 :  Examine the relevance of linkage of rivers in India with special reference of Ganga-Cauvery linkage canal

 2013 : Comment on the basis of creation of new States in India in 2000.

2013 :  Write a note on geopolitics of the Indian Ocean realm.  2014 : No Question

2015 :  Outline the Government of India’s strategies of conservation of the Western Ghats.

2015 :  Account for the growing frequency and intensity of floods in India, and suggest short- and long-term remedial measures indicating the chronically flood-prone areas.

2015 :  How does climate change affect the process of desertification of India?

2016 :  Explain the role of India in the geo-politics of South Asia.

2016 :  Analyze the pattern of India’s trade with the S-E Asian countries.

2016 : Explain the origin, dimension and implications of Sino- Indian border dispute.

2017 : What do you understand by soil pollution? Delineate the area vulnerable to it in India and  suggest remedial measures.

2017 : Why has solar energy in India not been developed to desired level in spite of its highpotential?

2018 :  Explain the changing river sources and their impacts on the riparian population in India with suitable examples.

2018 :  Describe the socio-spatial consequences of the recent Nipah viral encephalitis in India.

2019 :  Give a reasoned account of high level of pollution in North Indian cities as compared to  south Indian cities.

2019 :  Describe the altitudinal and spatial geo-environmental hazards in the Himalayas.

2020 :  Stunting and wasting among children are major consequence of food in insecurity.Discuss various schemes of Government of India to address insecurity. Address these problems and their achievements.

2020:   Avalanche is a major hazard in the Himalayas. What are its causes and mitigation measures?

2020 :  Demarcating the seismic zones of India, suggest suitable interventions required most  sensitive seismic zones for sustainable human settlements.

2021:  Landslide is a major problem in the Himalayan region. Discuss its causes and mitigation  measures.

2021: Appraise why drought is one of the most common climatic extremes in India.

2021:  Discuss the ecological and economic challenges of river linking in India.

2022:  Why has extreme particulate pollution remained a festering issue in Delhi NCR region?

2022:  The process of desertification leads to soil desiccation and soil loss. Explain.

2022:   Groundwater contamination in the fast expanding urban landscape of India appears to have become a major public health issue. Discuss.

2022:   Incidence of extreme rainfall events and flash floods in recent times have led to devastating consequences for people living in low-lying areas and flood plains of the     country. Discuss.

2022:   Evaluate the role of the National Food Security Act, 2003 in providing access of food to the poor in India.

2023 : Discuss the green energy initiative of India as a signatory nation to the Paris Agreement.

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