All posts by admin

UPSC Geography Optional Map Practice

Relief Features of India Mountains, hills, plateaus , islands, passes, peaks

Water bodies of India Plains, Lakes ,Rivers ,Dams, Multipurpose River Valley Projects, creeks, wetlands

Protected Areas of India  New sites of NGT Action GI Tag, Environmental agitation, Tiger Reserves, ConR, ComR, Elephant Reserves, Biosphere Reserves, Ramsar Sites & Forest Types

 Agriculture & Resources of India Crop regions ,Areas of agricultural problems Irrigation Sources , Energy ,Mineral&  Ocean Resources

Industries of India Industrial regions ,Location of textile, pharmaceuticals ,iron &steel, automobile ,paper , cement , petro chemical industries, Power plants

Transportation Means Roadways ,Railways , Waterways ,Civil Aviation ,Pipeline & Sea Ports

Contemporary Items Border Areas, Unrest Areas, Town Planning , New Developmental Projects & Areas of Environmental challenges

Geography is yet again best optional

Humanities Subjects is Unmatched in civil services examination

Even the Science background students select humanities subjects

2021 UPSC results have created a sort of history with all top three ranks grabbed by females!

Women  Empowerment Par Excellence.

It has also reestablished high success rate of humanities subjects

UPSC topper AIR -1 Shurti Sharma with History as her Optional (it has been her parent discipline as well) . Ankita Agarwal AIR-2 with PSIR (her parent discipline however was Economics), Aishwarya Verma AIR – 4  with Geography Optional , proves this. In addition many toppers had Sociology, Geography as their Optional.

This trend shows that along with Science students the number of Arts students cracking this exam is on increase. Also there is no scarcity of examples where science background students have opted for humanities subjects.

This is also to do with the fact that in UPSC list of humanities subjects as optional is lengthier.

It is believed and proven correct that at humanities subjects’ yields higher marks, making it popular with both science and commerce background students.

As per UPSC Report 2016 from among the selected candidates, approximately 84% (including language) were having humanities subjects as their optional.

Scholars are of believe that the multidisciplinary education is the need of hour. This justifies that when an Engineering Graduate selects humanities subjects, he/she is in position to have dual benefits

  • Technical knowledge to manage aptitude and reasoning
  • Better comprehension of social political issues

In light of changing paper pattern, to provide level ground to all students and optionals , multidisciplinary approach of preparation in mandatory.

It is well known fact that in multilevel of this exam humanities subjects are required to be studied the most. Humanities subjects make major part of General Studies syllabus. Moreover humanities subjects help aspirants to take note of and in better comprehension of socio-cultural/ politico-economic factors and conditions in India and World.

Optional UPSC 2023

DIRECTION IAS is institute dedicated to intellectual learning, that is  absolutely aloof of herd culture and treats every student as unique potential holder. This makes each of our student think I CAN.

We hold the distinction in guiding aspirants from remotest and humble backgrounds to recognize their potentials and convert it into success. This is made possible due to our dynamic, customized, dedicated and consistent endeavor to improve and make students prepare in ever modifying challenges.


Our swiftest change to Online Mode of teaching during the lockdown is excellent example of that preparedness. We are successfully running the Hybrid mode of classes, serving our motto of service before self

Is Geography Answer Writing difficult task ?

Courses Available

  • Number of Total Tests – 5,
  • Number of Discussions – 5
  • Number of Study Material Booklets – 5
  • Discussion Hours – 10
  • Flexible Timing & Dates
  • Evaluated Answer will be returned in selective lots with Comparative performance, and ranking will be uploaded on the portal to help students judge their relative performances.
  • Evaluated Answer will be returned in selective lots with personal feedback by Neetu Singh
  • Discussion in class will be on Wednesdays.
  • Test Timing : Online 9.30 – 12.30


The program orients towards

  • Writing skill enhancement
  • Framing of answer with integration of diagrams
  • Rational utilization of given time and space
  • Comprehending the key terms of questions
  • Integrating the facts and figures in logical manner
  • Coherence in writing
  • Flexibility in content presentation in absolute requirement of question


  • Help aspirants understand the demand of asked questions in UPSC exam effectively.
  • Provide personal feedback (by Neetu Singh Madam) to individual aspirants, to help them enhance their potentials
  • Coverage of entire syllabus in logical time.
  • Provision of quality improvement classes for enrolled students
  • Targeting 2020 MAIN – It will provide aspirants sufficient time and opportunity to increase their potentials.
  • Contact : 9810382305 or

Geography test series

Geography Optional Test Series and Content Enrichment Program

Test – 1
Characteristics, Configuration & evolution of rocks and landforms (except Applied Geomorphology) All geomorphology WG ; Physiographic Regions IG, Drainage System IG, Watersheds IG, Relief and Structure IG

Test – 2
Map test of Relief Features of India, Mountains, Plateaus, Hills, Passes, Peaks and  Islands
Test – 3
Physical ,Regional Study of Weather/Climate& Oceans (except Applied
Climatology, Urban climate, Marine Resources, Coral Bleaching, Marine Pollution) All Climatology WG, All Oceanography WG; Mechanism of Indian Monsoons IG, Rainfall Pattern IG, Tropical Cyclones IG, Climatic Regions IG, Western Disturbances IG

Test – 4
Map test of Water bodies of India, Plains, Lakes ,Rivers ,Dams, Multipurpose River Valley Projects &Wetlands

Test – 5
Fundamentals of Biosphere Genesis of soil WG, Classification and distribution of soil WG, Soil Profile WG, Factors influencing world distribution of plants & animals WG, Wild life, Gene Pool centres WG; Ecosystems, Principle of Ecology, Biodiversity WG; Human Ecological adaptation WG, Marine resources WG; Natural vegetation, soil types IG, Resources entire IG

Test –6
Map test of Protected Areas of India, Tiger Reserves, ConR, ComR, Elephant Reserves, Biosphere Reserves, Ramsar Sites & Forest Types

Test –7
Environmental Geography (will include All the Important Conventions & Policies of Environment Mitigation & Adaptation in relevance of GS also) Applied Geomorphology WG, Applied Climatology WG, Marine Pollution WG, Problems of soil degradation, deforestation, Ecological imbalances and changesWG, Ecosystem Management & Conservation, Sustainable Development, Environment Policy, Environmental hazards, remedial measures WG; Ecological issues, Environmental hazards, Pollution, Principle of EIA, Soil Erosion, Environmental Degradation, Environmental Policies (Contemporary issues) IG

Test 8
Map test of Agriculture & Resources of India Crop regions ,Areas of agricultural problems Irrigation Sources , Energy ,Mineral& Ocean Resources.

Test – 9
Reproductive Industries World AgricultureWG, Types, agricultural input & productivities, food and nutrition problem, Food security, Agricultural location models WG; All agriculture IG, Food Security IG

Test – 10
Map test of Industries of India Industrial regions ,Location of textile, pharmaceuticals ,iron &steel, automobile ,paper , cement , petro chemical industries

Test – 11
September Manufacturing Geography Energy crisis, World Economic development, Measurement and problems, World industries WG; All Industry IG; Industrial location models WG

Test – 12
September Map test of Transportation Means Roadways ,Railways , Waterways ,Civil Aviation ,Pipeline & Sea Ports.

Test – 1 Characteristics, Configuration & evolution of rocks and landforms

  • Factors controlling landform  development (WG)
  • Endogenetic  and exogenetic forces (WG)
  • Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust (WG)
  • Fundamentals of geomagnetism (WG)
  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior (WG)
  • Geosynclines (WG)
  • Continental drift (WG)
  • Isostasy; Plate  tectonics (WG)
  • Recent views on mountain building (WG)
  • Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis (WG)
  • Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development (WG)
  • Denudation chronology (WG)
  • Channel morphology (WG)
  • Erosion surfaces; Slope development (WG)
  • Structure and relief of India (IG)
  • Drainage systems and watersheds (IG)
  • Physiographic regions of India (IG)

Physical ,Regional Study of Weather/Climate and Oceans

  • Temperature and pressure belts of the world (WG)
  • Heat budget of the earth (WG)
  • Atmospheric circulation (WG)
  • Atmospheric stability and instability (WG)
  • Planetary and local winds (WG)
  • Monsoons and jet streams (WG)
  • Air masses and frontal genesis (WG)
  • Temperate and tropical cyclones (WG)
  • Types and distribution of precipitation (WG)
  • Weather and Climate (WG)
  • Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates (WG)
  • Hydrological cycle (WG)
  • Mechanism of monsoons and rainfall patterns of India (IG)
  • Tropical cyclones and Western Disturbances of India (IG)
  • Floods and Droughts of India (IG)
  • Climatic Regions of India (IG)
  • Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans (WG)
  • Temperature and salinity of the oceans (WG)
  • Heat and salt budgets (WG)
  • Ocean deposits (WG)
  • Waves, currents and tides (WG)
  • Laws of the sea (WG)

Fundamentals of Biosphere

  • Genesis of soils (WG)
  • Classification and distribution of soils (WG)
  • Soil profile (WG)
  • Soil erosion (WG)
  • Degradation and conservation (WG)
  • Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals (WG)
  • Problems of deforestation and conservation measures (WG)
  • Social forestry; agro-forestry (WG)
  • Wild life (WG)
  • Major gene pool centres (WG)
  • Principle of ecology (WG)
  • Human ecological adaptations (WG)
  • Influence of man on ecology and environment (WG)
  • Natural vegetation (IG)
  • Soil types and their distributions (IG)
  • Land,surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources (IG)
  • Forest and wild life resources and their conservation (IG)
  • Energy crisis (IG)

Environmental Geography

  • Applied Geomorphology (WG)
  • Geo hydrology (WG)
  • Economic geology and environment (WG)
  • Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes (WG)
  • Applied climatology and Urban climate (WG)
  • Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources (WG)
  • Coral bleaching (WG)
  • Sea-level changes (WG)
  • Marine pollution (WG)
  • Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances (WG)
  • Ecosystem their management and conservation (WG)
  • Environmental degradation, management and conservation (WG)
  • Biodiversity and sustainable development (WG)
  • Environmental policy (WG)
  • Environmental hazards and remedial measures (WG)
  • Environmental education and legislation (WG)
  • Ecological issues (IG)
  • Environmental hazards (IG)
  • Landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics (IG)
  • Issues relating to environmental  pollution (IG)
  • Changes in patterns of land use(IG)
  • Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management (IG)
  • Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion (IG)

Reproductive Industries

  • World agriculture (WG)
  • Typology of agricultural regions (WG)
  • Agricultural inputs and productivity (WG)
  • Food and nutrition problems (WG)
  • Food security (WG)
  • Famine: causes, effects and remedies (WG)
  • Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location (WG)
  • Infrastructure:  irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power (IG)
  • Institutional factors:  land holdings, land tenure and land reforms (IG)
  • Cropping pattern, agricultural  productivity, agricultural intensity (IG)
  • Crop combination, land capability (IG)
  • Agro and social-forestry (IG)
  • Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications (IG)
  • Significance of dry farming (IG)
  • Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua-culture; sericulture (IG)
  • Apiculture and poultry (IG)
  • Agricultural regionalisation (IG)
  • Agro-climatic zones (IG)
  • Agro-ecological regions (IG)
  • Population explosion and food security (IG)

Manufacturing Geography

  • Tourism including eco –tourism (IG)
  • Energy crisis (WG)
  • The limits to growth (WG)
  • World industries: Location patterns and problems (WG)
  • Weber’s model of industrial location (WG)
  • Evolution of industries (IG)
  • Location factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries (IG)
  • Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings (IG)
  • Industrial regionalization (IG)
  • New industrial policies (IG)
  • Multinationalsand liberalization (IG)
  • SpecialEconomic Zones (IG)

Facilitative Industries

  • Patterns of world trade (WG)
  • Road, railway, waterway (IG)
  • Airway and pipeline networks (IG)
  • Their complementary roles in regional development (IG)
  • Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade(IG)
  • Trade balance (IG)
  • Trade Policy (IG)
  • Export processing zones(IG)
  • Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society (IG)
  • Indian space programme(IG)

Regional Developments and Planning and Political Aspects

  • Concept of a region (WG)
  • Types of regions and methods of regionalization (WG)
  • Growth centres and growth poles (WG)
  • Regional imbalances (WG)
  • Regional development strategies (WG)
  • Environmental issues in regional planning (WG)
  • Planning for sustainable development (WG)
  • Perroux and Boudeville Rostov’s model of stages of growth (WG)
  • Experience of regional planning in India (IG)
  • Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes (IG)
  • Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning (IG)
  • Command area development (IG)
  • Watershed management (IG)
  • Planning for backward area, desert drought prone, hill, tribal area development (IG)
  • Multi-level planning (IG)
  • Regional planning and development of island territories (IG)
  • Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest (IG)
  • Regional disparities in economic development (IG)
  • Concept  of sustainable growth and  development (IG)
  • Environmental awareness (IG)
  • Linkage of rivers (IG)
  • Globalization and Indian economy (IG)
  • Heartland and Rimland theories (WG)
  • Laws of  international boundaries and frontiers (WG)
  • Geographical basis of Indian federalism (IG)
  • State re-organization (IG)
  • Emergence of new states (IG)
  • Regional consciousness and interstate issues (IG)
  • international boundary of India and related issues (IG)
  • Cross border terrorism (IG)
  • India’s role in world affairs (IG)
  • Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm (IG)

Perspectives in Human Geography Population and Settlement Geography

  • Areal differentiation (WG)
  • Regional synthesis  (WG)
  • Dichotomy and dualism (WG)
  • Environmentalism (WG)
  • Quantitative revolution and location analysis (WG)
  • Radical, behavioral, human and welfare approaches (WG)
  • Languages,religions and secularisation (WG)
  • Cultural regions of the world (WG)
  • Human development index (WG)
  • Systems analysis in Human geography (WG)
  • Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models (WG)
  • Growth and distribution of world population (WG)
  • Demographic attributes (WG)
  • Causes and consequences of migration (WG)
  • Concepts of  over-under-and optimum population (WG)
  • Population theories (WG)
  • World population problems and policies (WG)
  • Social well-being and quality of life (WG)
  • Population as social capital (WG)
  • Types and patterns of rural settlements (WG)
  • Environmental issues in rural settlements (WG)
  • Hierarchy of urban settlements (WG)
  • Urbanmorphology (WG)
  • Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule (WG)
  • Functional classification of towns (WG)
  • Sphere of urban influence (WG)
  • Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns (WG)
  • Problems and remedies of urbanization (WG)
  • Sustainable development of cities (WG)

Cultural Setting and Settlements

  • Historical Perspective of Indian Society(IG)
  • Racial,  linguistic and ethnic diversities (IG)
  • Religious  minorities (IG)
  • Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems(IG)
  • Cultural regions (IG)
  • Growth, distribution and density of population (IG)
  • Demographic attributes (IG)
  • Sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate (IG)
  • Work-force, dependency ratio (IG)
  • Longevity (IG)
  • Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems (IG)
  • Population problems and  policies (IG)
  • Health indicators (IG)
  • Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements (IG)
  • Urban development (IG)
  • Morphology of Indian cities (IG)
  • Functional classification of Indian cities (IG)
  • Conurbations and metropolitan regions (IG)
  • Urban sprawl (IG)
  • Slums and associated problems (IG)
  • Town planning (IG)
  • Problemsof urbanization and remedies (IG)


GS – Geography Mapping Classes India & World

Announcing Free Mapping  classes for GS and Geography. Location study both in static and contemporary perspective is important for UPSC preparations. All the new items appearing in news paper and its relation to mapping has always being area of problem for the aspirants. We will be targeting all these issues in the program.


  • We will cover all the Indian and World parts of mapping
  • It is for both prelims and main requirement
  • It is an absolute complementary program

# please be advised that you must have these two Atlases-

  • Oxford Student Atlas for India
  • Orient Blackswan School Atlas

Don’t miss the opportunity

Enroll Now!