All posts by admin

Any changes in UPSC examination 2024

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Civil Services Examination in 2024 will be a significant event in India, providing great opportunities for individuals aspiring to pursue a career in civil services. As clearly defined, the examination process will be conducted in two phases: the prelims and the main examination.
During the preliminary phase, candidates will be evaluated on their knowledge of current affairs, general studies, and aptitude. This phase acts as a screening test, and those who clear it will progress to the main examination.
The main examination will be more comprehensive and will assess candidates’ subject knowledge, as well as their public and mental abilities. This phase plays a crucial role in determining the final selection of candidates for various civil services posts.
In addition to the Civil Services Examination, the UPSC 2024 will also conduct other significant exams like the Engineering Services Examination, the Indian Economic Services Examination, and the Indian Statistical Services Examination. These examinations will focus on testing the candidates’ expertise and skills in their respective fields.
Furthermore, there will be a special exam dedicated to those aspiring to join the Indian Administrative Services (IAS), which is one of the most prestigious and sought-after civil services positions in India.
The UPSC 2024 is anticipated to be highly competitive, demanding aspirants to showcase not only their knowledge but also their problem-solving abilities and analytical skills.
As the year unfolds, many individuals will strive to excel in these examinations, and the successful candidates will have the opportunity to contribute significantly to the development and governance of the country. The civil services sector will undoubtedly play a vital role in shaping India’s future, and the UPSC 2024 will serve as a gateway for talented and dedicated individuals to serve the nation in various capacities.
The exam pattern, UPSC 2024 syllabus, and selection process are expected to be the same as in previous years.
Q.1. Why we Follow the 7-5-3 Rule?
Ans. The 7-5-3 Rule is a strategy to approach the UPSC exam questions effectively. It suggests attempting 7 questions in a minute, writing at least 5 points elaborating on each question, and adopting a 3-dimensional approach towards answering.

Q.2. What is the gap between Prelims and Mains?
Ans. The gap between the UPSC Preliminary Examination (Prelims) and the Main Examination (Mains) is approximately 100 days. This time period allows candidates who clear the Prelims to prepare thoroughly for the more extensive Mains examination.

Q.3. What are the nine UPSC exams?
Ans. The IAS (Indian Administrative Service) Exam, also known as the UPSC Civil Services Exam, comprises a total of nine papers in the Main Examination. These papers are as follows:

Paper-A (Compulsory Indian Language)
Paper-B (English)
General Studies Paper I
General Studies Paper II
General Studies Paper III
General Studies Paper IV
Optional Paper I
Optional Paper II
Out of these, Paper-A and Paper-B are qualifying in nature, and their marks are not taken into account for the final ranking. The marks obtained in the other papers, along with the Personality Test (Interview), determine the final selection of candidates.Books selection in UPSC

UPSC Civil Services Prelims 2023: Slight change in the pattern of a few questions

The UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2023 was held on May 28. Questions about geography and the environment were based on textbooks and current developments. In the pattern, there was a slight change.

Geography and Environment Geography play the major role in prelims examination. We advice to student follow these topics with more focus-

Basics of Biodiversity, Biodiversity, Types of biodiversity, Patterns of biodiversity, Bio-geographical classification of World, Bio-geographical classification of India, Functions of biodiversity, Hotspots of biodiversity, Bio informatics, Eco Regions, Role of Traditional Knowledge in Biodiversity, Biopiracy, Animal and Plant Diversity, Plant and Animal Kingdom, Marine Mammals, Egg laying Mammals, Marsupials, Threats to biodiversity, Causes of Biodiversity losses, Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
Extinction of species, Mass Extinction, IUCN Red List and Classification Scheme, Biodiversity Conservation, Scheduled Animals in the Wildlife Protection Act, In-situ methods of Conservation, Protected Area Categories, Forms of Protected Areas, Biosphere reserves, Sacred forests and sacred lakes
World Heritage sites, Geo-heritage sites, Advantages of In-situ conservation, Disadvantages of In-situ conservation, Ex-situ methods of Conservation
Advantages of ex-situ preservation: Disadvantages of Ex-situ conservation, Zoological Parks, Botanical Gardens, Seed banks, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries
Biosphere Reserves, Species based conservation programmes, Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Project Snow Leopard, Vulture conservation project, Crocodile conservation project
Ganges dolphin project, Indian Rhino Vision, Other projects, India adopts SAWEN, Important Coastal and marine Biodiversity Areas Global initiative, State of Protected Areas in the World
MAB – Man and Biosphere Programme, World network of Biosphere Reserves, Biodiversity Hotspots, CBD – Convention of Biological Diversity, Cartegana Protocol, Nagoya Protocol
Aichi Biodiversity Diversity, Estuaries, What are estuaries?, Types of Estuaries, Importance of estuaries, Threats to estuaries, Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states, Monitoring and Prediction of Health of Estuarine and Coastal Waters, Difference between Lagoon and Estuary, Estuary ecosystem: Adaptations made in organisms, Conservation of Estuaries, Mangroves, What are mangroves?, Mangroves in India, Importance of Mangroves, Mangroves under threats, Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection, Community based mangrove regenerationCoral Reef
About coral reefs, What do corals feed on?, Geographical Conditions, Types Of Coral Reefs, Uses of coral reefs, Concept of Bio-rock reefs, Threats to Coral reefs, Conservation of coral reef
Wetlands, What are wetlands? Types of wetlands, Wetlands in India, Importance of wetlands, Threats to wetland ecosystems, Conservation of Wetlands, About Ramsar Convention ‘., About Asian Water bird Census ,  Tiger Reserve Population. etc.

Bremerhaven Port

News in Port The ship carrying 3,783 new vehicles, including 498 electric vehicles, from Germany’s Bremerhaven to Singapore has been burning since Tuesday. Firefighters decided not to douse the flames with water for fear of making the nearly 200-meter (656-foot) ship unstable as it floats close to North Sea shipping lanes and a world-renowned migratory bird habitat.

Top 10: The busiest container ports in Europe

  • Port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands – 14.4 million
  • Port of Antwerp-Bruges, Belgium – 13.5 million
  • Port of Hamburg, Germany – 8.3 million
  • Port of Valencia, Spain – 5.1 million
  • Port of Piraeus, Greece – 5 million
  • Port of Algeciras, Spain – 4.8 million
  • Port of Bremerhaven, Germany – 4.6 million
  • Port of Barcelona, Spain – 3.5 million
  • Port of Gioia Tauro, Italy – 3.4 million
  • Port Haropa, France – 3.1 million

BREMERHAVEN is located at UK Coast & Atlantic, Elbe River in Germany.Port of Hamburg is not only the largest seaport in Germany and the third largest in Europe, but also Europe’s largest railway port – even leading worldwide in many areas of hinterland connections by rail.The Danube is an international waterway, and thus landlocked Austria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia, and Slovakia have secure access to the Black Sea (the same access is given to inland parts of Germany and Croatia, though Germany and Croatia are not landlocked).

India’s tiger Population

India’s tiger count tops 3,600 Tigers in India constitute more than 70% of the global population of tigers. Tiger is officially adopted as the National Animal of India.
India recorded a 23.5% increase in tiger population between 2018 and 2022, taking the number of big cats in the wild to 3,682, more than the initi

Tiger Reserve in India

ally estimated 3,167 and accounting for 75% of the tigers in the world. In April, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had released an interim estimation of 3,167 tigers. India had 2,197 tigers in 2018, up from 1,411 tigers in 2006.
The increase shows the success of the country’s 20-year-old science- based tiger conservation programme, experts said. Around 80% of the tigers (2,885) now reside in eight of the 18 tiger states, including Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra,
Tamil Nadu and Assam. MP has the highest tiger population of 785, followed by 563 in Karnataka and 444 in Maharashtra.
The central Indian and Western Ghats landscapes have contributed 2,526 tigers to the total number, making them the most dense tiger regions in the world, according to state-wise estimation reported

On the individual score, Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand and Kaziranga National Park in Assam continue to be most densely populated tiger reserves,
with 260 and 104 tiger, respectively, with Bandhavgarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bandipur in Karnataka
in close pursuit.
Globally, the number of tigers increased from 3,890 in 2016 to 5,575 in 2023, with India and Nepal doubling the numbers, said a statement from the Global Tiger
Forum on Saturday. The GTF counts vary slightly for the
overall global figure, due to which India’s share according to this total does not amount to the share
released by the government.
In Madhya Pradesh, 137 of the 785 tigers were found outside the sixreserves. In Maharashtra, of the 444 tigers, at least 80 were found to be outside the six notified tiger habitats. In Karnataka, 136 of the 563 tigers were found outside the five tiger reserves.
Methodology :  “India is the only country in the world with such a scheme. This has lessened human intervention and man-tiger conflicts in the core areas,” said Jhala, who is credited with introducing the modern tiger estimation methodology.

How to clear UPSC with Geography Optional

General Outline

Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.

Well begun is half done!!

So the beginning of your optional preparation must be with extensive reading of prescribed syllabus. This must include not just the main headings but also the sub-topics.

While comprehending the syllabus, integrate NCERT – 11th and 12th standard along with certificate to Physical & Human Geography by G.C. Leong.

For preparing each topic, take basic references (mentioned later), Class notes and also the model answers. Selection of 2-3 sources caters static and dynamic part of syllabus sufficiently.

Coverage of every topic (with multiple revisions) must be followed on by analyses of question trend. This can be done by referring Question Paper Analysis. This helps in comprehension of question trends.

It is strictly not advisable to be selective in your preparation as natures of questions are more integrated and open-ended.

Making notes/pointers for every topic is always advisable as it helps in quick revision and answer formatting.

As approached in the classroom, best way to prepare the syllabus is the swing,e. integration of Paper-I and Paper-II topics.

With nature of questions asked becoming unpredictable, class room coaching and test series help cannot be ruled out.

Strategy and sources of preparation

The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today

The Physical Principles of Geography covers maximum of static and core segment of syllabus. This part can be divided into

  1. Geomorphology
  2. Climatology
  3.  Oceanography
  4.  Biogeography (with some parts of Environment Geography)

Geomorphology – is the study of relief. It requires aspirants to be aware of processes forming and modifying relief feature (Paper-I). Its application is in Paper-II – Relief features of India.

To prepare this topic, which is both technical and applicable,Suggested sources are

  • Physical Geography – Savinder Singh
  • Physical Geography – Strahler and Strahler
  • Geography of India – Khullar
  • Class notes (Model answers)

Climatology- is the study of atmosphere and weather mechanism. This topic is also more technical in nature and requires strong and clear comprehension in Paper-I. Its application in Paper-II is as Indian climate, rainfall pattern, cyclones, western disturbances, etc.

Involving same technical and applicable dimensions, the suggested sources are

  • Physical Geography – Savinder Singh
  • Physical Geography – Strahler and Strahler
  • Geography of India – Khullar
  • Class notes (Model answers)

Oceanography– the study of oceans and marginal water bodies, is less technical and least prominent part of Physical Geography. The natures of questions are comparatively easy to comprehend. Suggested sources are

  • Physical Geography – Savinder Singh
  • Physical Geography – Strahler and Strahler
  • Geography of India – Khullar
  • Class notes (Model answers)

Biogeography – including fundamental principles of ecology, is the most sought after topic of syllabus. Its contemporary aspect makes it far more overlapping in nature – Biomes, vegetation, soil, Gene pool centres as the topics involves strong foundation for applicable parts as sustainability.

Paper II Indian vegetation, biome, soil, wildlife relates to the same in regional perspective. Suggested sources are –

  • NCERT Biology XII Std.
  • Class notes (Model answers)

Environment Geography – It is applicable part of biogeography and ecology. It is about degradation, climate change, causes, consequences, mitigation and adaptation strategies – World and India.

Extremely dynamic and marks-fetching topics are sincerely advised to be prepared in minutest details for both papers. Suggested sources are –

  • UNEP Report
  • IPCC Report
  • Terra Green
  • Down to Earth
  • Annual Report of MoEFCC
  • Class notes (Model answers)

The Fundamentals of Human Geography – It is the most dynamic part of syllabus which has feedback links with physical principles of geography as well.Also it is the scoring part of the syllabus as individual approach to answer writing is given higher remuneration.

Perspective in Human Geography- It is the most sought after and difficult topic of syllabus.It is about genesis and development of Geography as a discipline. It provides aspirants the understanding of Geographers and their contributions.

The prescribed syllabus though is more approaches and methods oriented, rather than scholar’s contributions.  Chronology of development of ideas is a must, in its preparation.

In last few years, the questions from this topic has not just increased (2018 Main as example), it has also been made applicable.

While preparing this topic, it must be considered that it grooms aspirants’ capacity to the maximum in writing good answers as it helps in quoting examples of Geographic contributions.

It do include the topics as language, Religion, Cultural Regions, HDI as applicable aspects of thought.

Suggested sources are

  •   Fundamentals of Geographical Thought – Sudeepta Adhikari
  •   Geographical Thought – R.D. Dixit
  •    Class notes (Model answers)

Population Geography and Cultural Setting- Based on UNFPA and Census data table, population geography includes static nature for 10 years for both Papers I and II.

However, population as social capital, social well being and quality of life makes applicable topics in Paper I.

Similarly, health indicators, population problems and policies of Paper-II are applicable topics. Suggested sources are

  •   Class notes
  •   Model answers
  •   Fundamentals of Contemporary Human Geography – Mona Domash

Settlement Geography- In Paper-I, syllabus is more theories-oriented. Absolute clarity of terms and scholars is required.

However in Paper-II, Contemporary thus open ended dimension of town problems and planning makes it marks fetching.

Suggested sources are

  • Human Geography – Majid Hussain
  • Urbanisation & Urban systems in India – R. Ramachandran
  •  PIB for town planning and problems
  •  Class notes

Economic Geography- In Paper-I, the syllabus is less extensive though includes topics that are dynamic in nature as World Economic Development, Food & Nutrition Problem, Patterns of world trade

It is more extensive and applicable in Paper-II involved with significance of all Government policies and programmes.

Divided into Agriculture, Industrial Geography, Trade transport and communication. Syllabus has an absolute applicable dimension.

Suggested sources are

  •   PIB
  •    Class notes (Model answers)
  •   Economic Geography – Leone & Morgan
  •   FAO Report
  •  World Development Report

Regional and Political Geography- These topics in Paper-I again has static, theoretical dimensions in combination to dynamic aspects as planning for sustainable development and geopolitical significance of different geographic regions, i.e. application of geopolitical theories.

Paper-II involves overlap of entire syllabus with these topics as both physical and human aspects influences level of development, thus planning also a political significance.

Suggested sources are

  •   Yojna and Kurukshetra magazines
  •    Political Geography – S. Adhikari
  •    Rupa made simple Part-II
  •    Class notes

Models, theories and Laws in Human Geography- This topic of Paper-I holds its significance at par with perspectives in development of Human Geography.

It includes all the major theories and models of human geography. Application aspects of these require understanding of  present scenario of human geography sources.

Suggested sources are

  •     Class notes
  •    Political Geography – S. Adhikari
  •     Human Geography – Majid Hussain


Toppers Answer Copy 

Pratham Kaushik (Rank 5 CSE 2017)

Why Geography Optional Popular

The study of Geography is about more than just memorizing places on a map. It’s about understanding the complexity of our world appreciating, the diversities, and in the end, it is about using all that knowledge to crack Optional and GS requirement.

‘Geography is the subject which holds the key to our future.’ As “Geography is Everything & Everything is Geography!!”

Technically the content matter of Geography has three approaches, viz.

  • Theoretical –Geographical Thought and Physical Geography build up the theoretical and ideological foundations of Geography.
  • Methodological – Methods applied for Geographic studies i.e. integration of content matter to strengthen the methodological and quantitative foundations of Geography.
  • Systematic Approach –Environment and Ecology, Human Geography address the contemporary issues in Geography

Geographers strive to understand Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it, the links between humans and the natural environment, and the spatial linkages among humans and their activities.  The geographer is concerned with the how, why, and where of these reciprocal relationships.

Geography as an Academic Discipline

The word geography originates with the Greek words geo, meaning Earth, and graphia, meaning to write about or describe. Literally, geography is the description of Earth. On the surface, this definition seems pretty straightforward, because “description of Earth” seems to indicate that geography is concerned with the “what of where”—the location of the world’s mountains, rivers, deserts, countries, cultures, and so on. But with any discipline, geography is not so simple. There multiple, and oftentimes complex, ways to describe the earth and the people who inhabit it.

Geography is both very old and fairly new. In one sense, geography is as old as humanity itself. Knowledge about Earth was as much about survival to our ancient ancestors as it was about curiosity. The scholarly origins of geography can be traced to ancient Greece. In the other it is evolving everyday

Geography is a true liberal art in that it spans the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities.

Generally, the field breaks down into two main sub-areas: the examination of spatial patterns and processes in the natural world, and in the examination of spatial patterns and processes of people. Thus geographers oftentimes describe themselves either as “physical geographers” or “human geographers.”

Physical geographers examine Earth’s physical processes and how these processes not only transform Earth’s surface but also how they and affect the distribution of ecosystems. Human geographers focus on the patterns of human activity: our settlements, cultures, politics, economics, and countless manifestations of our existence and interaction.

Geography is also spatial. By spatial, it mean that geographers study the connections between people and the environment in the context of physical space and through time.

Geography is concerned with places and regions. Geographers are keenly aware how our lives and identities are connected to individual places and to regions. Because the term “region” is used frequently, it is worth discussing its use in geography. In one sense, regions are a way for geographers to organize information. Regions are defined by spatial criteria. They occupy space and are defined by internal characteristics.

There are formal regions which are defined by internal homogeneity, like German-speaking Europe or the Corn Belt. We have functional regions, which are defined by interaction between a core location or activity and the surrounding hinterland.

Geography is concerned both with environment and society. We study the reciprocal linkages that exist between humans and the environment. We study how physical systems affect humans, such as the impacts of Hurricane  the earthquake/tsunami events .

Themes of Geography.

  • Location – specific location, where?
  • Place – unique properties of a place
  • Movement – diffusion, communications
  • Region – an area’s uniform characteristics
  • Human-Earth Relationships – human interaction with the environment

The first area of inquiry is how to understand and respond to environmental change.

  • How are we changing the physical environment of Earth’s surface?
  • How can we best preserve biological diversity and protect endangered ecosystems?
  • How are climate and other environmental changes affecting the vulnerabilities of human—environmental systems?

The second area of inquiry is how to promote sustainability.

  • How and where will 10 billion people live?
  • How will we sustainably feed everyone in the coming decade and beyond?
  • How does where people live affect their health? Added to this question is how the interconnectedness of people affects health—particularly in the context of regional and global health epidemics.

The third area of inquiry is how to recognize and cope with the spatial reorganization of economy and society.

  • How is the movement of people, goods, and ideas transforming the world?
  • How is economic globalization affecting inequality?
  • How are geopolitical shifts influencing peace and stability?

Each of these questions is broad and complex. In order to answer any of them, one not only needs a broad, strong background in the liberal arts, one needs geography. Geography is a bridge connecting the liberal arts, and geographic inquiry will be particularly relevant for researchers and policy makers grappling with these issues.

Booklist for Geography Optional UPSC 2024

Reading NCERT textbooks and Basic Text Books is must read for your IAS exam preparation

NCERT Books for UPSC History Books:

History: NCERT Class VI – Our Past

History: NCERT Class VII – Our Past -I

History: NCERT Class VIII – Our Past II and III

History: NCERT Class IX – India and the Contemporary World – I & II

Ancient India (class XI) (Old NCERT)

Medieval India (class IX) (Old NCERT) Satish Chandra.

Modern India (class X) by Bipin Chandra (Old NCERT)

History of Modern India (Bipin Chnadra)

NCERT Books for UPSC Indian Society

Indian Society: NCERT Class VI – Social Science: Social & Political Life I

Indian Society: NCERT Class VII – Social Science: Social & Political Life II

Indian Society: NCERT Class VIII – Social Science: Social & Political Life III

Indian Society: NCERT Class XI – Sociology: Understanding Society

Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Indian Society

Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Social Change and Development in India

NCERT Books for UPSC Art and Culture

Art and Culture : NCERT Class XI – An Introduction to Indian Art

Art and Culture Ministry of Art – culture

NCERT Books for UPSC Geography

Geography: NCERT Class VI – The Earth Our Habitat

Geography: NCERT Class VII – Our Environment

Geography: NCERT Class VIII – Resource and Development

Geography: NCERT Class IX – Contemporary India – I

Geography: NCERT Class X – Contemporary India – II

Geography: NCERT Class XI – Fundamentals of Physical Geography (New NCERT)

Geography: NCERT Class XI – India – Physical Environment

Geography: NCERT Class XII – Fundamentals of Human Geography (New NCERT)

Geography: NCERT Class XII – India – People and Economy

Physical Geography Made Simple  (Part – I) By : Richard H Bryant

Economic and Social Geography Made Simple  (Part – II)

Certificate physical and human geography by GC Leong

Geography Optional

Geomorphology (Physical Geography) – Savindra Singh /Strahler

Climatology (Physical Geography) – Critchfield

Oceanography (Physical Geography) – Savindra Singh /Strahler

Biogeography (Physical Geography) – Savindra Singh /Strahler

Human Geography: Majid Husain

Geography of India: D R Khullar

Models and theories:  Majid Hussain / Made simple part – II

Geographical Thought: Majid Hussain / Sudipta Adhikary

Additional Sources: Yojana & Kurushektra / NITI Aayog Report / India Year Book

NCERT Books for UPSC Indian Polity

Polity NCERT Books for UPSC

Polity: NCERT Class IX – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – I

Polity: NCERT Class X – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – II

Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Indian Constitution at Work

Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Political Theory

Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science I: Contemporary World Politics

Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science II: Politics in India since Independence

Indian Polity For by laxmikanth 7th edition

NCERT Books for UPSC  IndianEconomy

Economy: NCERT Class IX – Economics

Economy: NCERT Class X – Understanding Economic Development

Economy: NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development

Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Microeconomics

Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Macroeconomics

IGNOU Booklets MEC-105 Indian Economy Policy

NCERT Books for UPSC Science & Technology

Science: NCERT Class VI

Science: NCERT Class VII

Science: NCERT Class VIII

Science: NCERT Class IX

Science: NCERT Class X

Science: NCERT Class XI – Chemistry: Chpt. 14 / Biology: Chpt. 4 & 5

Science: NCERT Class XII – Chemistry: Chpt. 16 / Biology: Chpt. 8, 9 & 10

TMH Science Guide Book

NCERT Books for UPSC Environment / Ecology Climate Change

Science: Class XII – Biology: Chpt. 13,14, 15 & 16

IGNOU BEVAE-181 Environmental Studies

IGNOU AHE1 Human Environment

Atlas: Oxford Student Atlas for India & the Orient BlackSwan Atlas


1 2 5