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GS – Geography Pre.- Cum – Main

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Geography holds significant importance in both the UPSC Prelims and Main examinations under the General Studies (GS) paper.  Apart from three topics in GS Paper I Prelims ,it overlaps with more than half of Paper II  and near all Paper III in Main . It also helps aspirants in Essay Writing and International Relations. We at DIRECTION IAS provide customized Prelims cum Main GS Classes. A thorough understanding of geographical concepts, along with the ability to link them to current affairs and other subjects, can significantly enhance a candidate’s performance in the UPSC Civil Services Examination.

GS – 3 Modules Details Start January 2024

To cater this we at DIRECTION IAS have designed Pre cum Main GS Modules as ;-            

  • Physical Geography World and India
  • Environment, Ecology , biodiversity and climate change   
  • Socio Economic Development

For Integrated Understanding and Current Affairs Relevance to  help develop  answering both Prelims and Mains questions effectively

Preliminary Examination (GS Paper I):

MCQ-based Questions: In the UPSC Prelims, Geography-related questions often appear in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). These questions can cover various topics such as physical geography, climatology, economic geography, world geography, and more.

Environment and Ecology: A significant portion of environmental and ecological topics, which are an essential part of the Prelims syllabus, are linked to Geography, such as climate change, natural resources, biodiversity, and disaster management.

Physical Geography World & India : A significant portion of Physical Geography topics, which are an essential part of the Prelims syllabus, are linked to Geography, such as relief features, tectonic forces, oceanic currents, climatic regions and mechanism of weather

Socio Economic Development: A significant portion of Socio Economic Development topics, which are an essential part of the Prelims syllabus, are linked to Geography, such as population planning ,inclusion ,human development ,hunger abatement ,agriculture planning ,industrial development,trade transport and communication development.

Map-based Questions: UPSC often includes map-based questions to test candidates’ knowledge of locations, physical features, and geopolitical situations, making knowledge of Geography indispensable.

Main Examination

GS Paper I Syllabus: The UPSC Mains GS Paper I syllabus includes topic geography of the world and India. Indian Society

Salient features of Indian Society

  • Diversity of India
  • Role of women and women’s organization
  • Population and associated issues
  • Poverty and developmental issues
  • Urbanization: their problems and their remedies
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment: communalism, regionalism & secularism.

World Geography

  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)
  • Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc.
  • Geographical features and their location
  • Changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

GS Paper III

Economic Development

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy
  • changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.


  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country
  • Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
  • Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints
  • e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices
  • Public Distribution System– objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping;
  • issues of buffer stocks and food security
  • Technology missions
  • economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India– scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

Science and Technology

  • Developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology
  • Indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology
  • Issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Biodiversity and Environment

  • Conservation
  • environmental pollution and degradation
  • environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.

Internal security

  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks
  • Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges
  • Basics of cyber security
  • Money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas
  • Linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

UPSC Prelims Examination Notification UPSC NOTIFICATION